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Apr 20, (a) KITAB-UL-HIND was written by AL-BIRUNI in Arabic language KITAB-UL- HIND is simple and lucid and a voluminous text divided into 80 chapters on. Sep 30, Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic. Kitab Tarikh Al-Hind and Aims of Writing it. Al-Biruni’s Kitab-ul-Hind is simple and lucid. It is divided. were incorporated in Mahmud’s Indian army; and Al- beruni—what Geography. Kitab-almanshurdt. marching to Hind or India proper we start from the.

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Al-Biruni – Wikipedia

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Whereas the compilation date of his work, namely around A. From the 8th c. I am the kittab responsible for the contents of this paper.

Student was kind enough to check my English. In addition, his discovery of Indian culture is strongly linked with the rise of the Ghaznavid polity. Therefore, a distinction between the conquered and unconquered world is needed in order to assess the depth of his information as well as the methodology he employed for gathering information.

I will first concentrate on the Kashmir Valley, which was out of the conquered world, and then proceed to the evidence regarding areas belonging to the conquered world. Hence, it is incumbent on the present article to bruni further on this interrogation.

Through The Eyes Of Travellers

Beyond the conquered world: This7 is the reason why their [different] sciences vanished from the conquered boundaries and retired towards unreachable8 [places], such as Kashmir,9 Varanasi and the like [ Therefore, the word Kashmir here stands for the Kashmir Valley. Before, one or two foreigners could enter [Kashmir], especially Jews. Henceforth, they do not let any unknown Indians, let alone the others. Yet he gives generous information on the Valley: Kashmir is now visited [by devotees]; similarly, Multan was [visited] be- fore the destruction of its temple.

This extract underlines the fact that Indian devotees were able to travel and that the Kashmir Valley was less impenetrable than it appears at first. See the online converter: These kings have been pushed eastwards by the Ghaznavids until they had to take shelter in Kashmir.


The Hindu Shahis were originally ruling Zabulistan, Kabulistan and Zamindawar when the first Ghaznavids conquered this area. So he ordered to senddirham, as well as similar22 gifts to Kashmir, for the distribution among those interested in the book of his master. Sachau makes some assumptions about this figure, but with little certainty Sachau It is however beyond the scope of our current discussion to examine this further.

They are situated at around 8 km north-east of modern Taxila.

Thus, two relevant elements emerge here. First, none of the aforementioned places are situated in present-day India.

I heard from people of Multan that there is no monsoon season [in Multan], as there is in the remote northern parts. They refused to acknowledge it and 38 Sachau’s Manuscript: Although oral interactions do not appear to have been his main method for gathering information, however it appears that they have provided him more data47 than his direct observations, even within the borders of the Ghaznavid kingdom.

And I u myself as much as possible, without avarice, to collect their books from places where they were supposed to be, and to convoke people able to guide me to them, from places where they were gind.

Promotion of scholarship was essential for rulers at that time. The presence of poets or scholars at the court of the sultan added to his prestige and reputation. In a sense, the writers contributed to create sultans’ best image at the time. In his Chronology of Ancient Na- tion, compiled in A.

Bīrūnī as a source for the study of Indian culture and history | Noemie Verdon –

At first, between andastronomical works e. Sec- ondly, in the period ranging from tomany writings related to medicine, pharma- cology, toxicology and hid were studied and translated. The predominance of oral and written transmission becomes clear from the preceding paragraphs. Intellectual dynamism took place, even in the case of isolated areas such as the Kashmir Valley. In the conquered world as well, the positive evidence shows that the sources of information were both oral and written.


Thus, globally, most data came from oral interactions and the circulation of written documents, but eventually much less from direct observation. Furthermore, it seems that intellectual exchanges were supported and encouraged by the Ghaznavids, through the gathering of books and scholars to their heruni. Moreover the rare pieces of evidence of his observations concern sites beruno Pakistan — mainly Punjab — but not in present-day India.

The question of whether he was able to cross the borders of the Ghaznavid realm should be also examined in a more developed study that would consider the actual relationship between Muslims and Indians at that period. The question of his freedom of movements has to be raised as well. To consider the political ql of different parts of the Ghaznavid empire would constitute clues in this regard.

Finally, written sources and oral gind, rather than direct observations, appear to constitute the major part of his sources.

This raises further questions. There existed a flow of written documents — books, calendars and letters? It is then still difficult to know in which area these books could have been part of a living tradition.

Did they come from the conquered world or from its outer boundaries? Were they popular only in some local areas? Or were they used globally in many provinces of al-Hind? kktab

Their Empire in Afghanistan and Eastern U, November 26, thru’ December 12, Hamdard National Foundation, Pakistan. An outline of his Life and Work A. The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link.

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