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16 abr. RATZEL E A ANTROPOGEOGRAFIA Friedrich Ratzel vai ser responsável por novas formulações no processo de sistematização da Geografia. Antropogeografia şi întemeietorul ei Fr. Ratzel [Anthropogeography and its founder, Fr. Ratzel]. Bucharest: Socec, ———. Fruntaria României spre Răsărit. Antropogeografia – Frederic Ratzel. 4 likes. Interest.

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Friedrich Ratzel August 30, — August 9, was a German geographer and ethnographernotable for first using the term Lebensraum “living space” in the sense that the National Socialists later would. Ratzel’s father was the head of the household staff of the Grand Duke of Baden. Friedrich attended high school in Karlsruhe for six years before being apprenticed at age 15 to apothecaries. Inhe went to Rapperswil on the Lake of ZurichSwitzerlandwhere he began to study the classics.

After a further year as an apothecary at Moers near Krefeld in the Ruhr area —he spent a short time at the high school in Karlsruhe and became a student of zoology at the universities of HeidelbergJena and Berlinfinishing in He studied zoology inpublishing Sein und Werden der organischen Welt on Darwin.

He began field work in the Mediterraneanwriting letters of his experiences. Ratzel embarked on several expeditions, the lengthiest and most important being his trip to North AmericaCubaand Mexico.

Friedrich Ratzel – Wikipedia

He studied the influence of people of German origin in Americaespecially in the Midwestas well as other ethnic groups in North America.

According to Antorpogeografia, cities are the best place to study people because life is “blended, compressed, and accelerated” in cities, and they bring out the “greatest, best, most typical aspects of people”.


Upon his return inRatzel became a lecturer in geography at the Technical High School in Munich. Inhe was promoted to assistant professor, then rose to full professor in While at Munich, Ratzel produced several books and established his career as an academic. Inhe accepted an appointment at Leipzig University. His lectures were widely attended, notably by the influential American geographer Ellen Churchill Semple.

Ratzel antrpogeografia the foundations of human geography in his two-volume Anthropogeographie in and This work was misinterpreted by many of his students, creating a number of environmental determinists. He published his work on political geographyPolitische Geographiein It was in this work that Ratzel introduced concepts that contributed to Lebensraum and Social Darwinism. His three volume work The History of Mankind [1] was published in English in and contained over excellent engravings and remarkable chromolithography.

Ratzel continued his work at Leipzig until his sudden death on August 9, in AmmerlandGermany. Ratzel, a scholar of versatile academic interest, was a antropogeogrrafia German. During the outbreak of Franco-Prussian war inhe joined the Prussian army and was wounded twice during the war.

Influenced by thinkers including Darwin and zoologist Ernst Heinrich Haeckelhe published several papers. Among them is the essay Lebensraum concerning biogeographycreating a foundation for the uniquely German variant of geopolitics: His writings served as welcome justification for imperial expansion. Influenced by the American geostrategist Alfred Thayer MahanRatzel wrote of aspirations for German naval reach, agreeing that sea power was self-sustaining, as the profit from trade would pay for the merchant marineunlike land power.


His early concept of lebensraum was not political or economic but spiritual and racial nationalist expansion. The Raum-motiv is a historically-driving force, pushing peoples with great Kultur to naturally expand. Space, for Ratzel, was a vague concept, theoretically unbounded. Raum was defined as where German peoples live, and other weaker states could serve to support German peoples economically, and German culture could fertilize other cultures.


However, it ought to be noted that Ratzel’s concept of raum was not overtly aggressive, but he theorized simply as the natural expansion of strong states into areas controlled by weaker states. The book for which Ratzel is acknowledged all over the world is Anthropogeographie. It was completed between and The main focus of this monumental work is on the effects of different physical features and locations on the style and life of the people.

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