Cnemidocoptes gallinae, the depluming mite, the itch mite: worldwide. Cnemidocoptes mutans, the scaly leg mite: worldwide. Epidermoptes. 2,3 (also known as Knemidokoptes and Cnemidocoptes) is a genus in the pilae, Knemidocoptes jamaicensis, and Knemidocoptes mutans. The scaly-leg mite of poultry has been studied under various names. The principal ones are: Sarcopies mutans by Robin and Lanquetin (); Sarcoptes.
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Bloodsucking poultry mites behave rather like soft ticks. The most important species are:. Non-bloodsucking poultry mites behave rather like mange mites. The most relevant species are:.
Part 4 – External and Internal Parasites of Chickens
Regional incidence and prevalence can be quite different, e. Globally, the red fowl mite is the most cnemidocopfes and damaging species, among other reasons because resistance to acaricides is very frequent, which makes it particularly difficult to control.
Bloodsucking mites are vectors of various poultry pathogens, i. Non-bloodsucking mites are not vectors of bird pathogens. Infestations with mites are technically called acariosis or acariasis, both on animals and humans.
Click here to learn more about the general biology fnemidocoptes mites.
The red fowl mite also called red poultry miteroost mitechicken miteetc. Occasionally it can also attack humans, and there is new evidence that it can complete its life-cycle on humans as well.
It is an obligate bloodsucking parasitei. Dermanyssus gallinae is the most mutanw species among the poultry mites. It affects mainly laying hens, and can be a serious problem in industrial operations as well as in traditional, backyard and hobby farming. Adult females lay mutqns off the birds in their hiding places, which hatch 2 to 3 days later. They cnemidocotpes 4 to 8 eggs at a time, a total of about 25 eggs during her lifetime.
A blood meal is required after each egg laying. Hatched larvae do not feed and cnemidocopges to nymphs 1 to 2 days later. Nymphs suck blood and after various molts they become adults in about 4 to 5 days.
Under favorable conditions hot and humid weather they can complete their life cycle as shortly as in 7 days: Huge mite populations can build-up in a few weeks. Adult mites live for about 8 weeks, but they can survive up to 5 months without feeding. For this reason infestation of birds kept outdoors often are only a summer problem in many regions. Adult mites are 0. Adults and nymphs cnemidocophes attack the birds at night and suck blood.
Each blood meal lasts for 1 to 2 hours. Mites leave the host during the day to hide in cracks, crevices cnemidocoptrs hollow places e. In very high populations the mites may feed on their hosts also during the day. Mites on the birds are found especially around the beak and the ears, on the breast, back and legs.
Harm to birds can be considerable. The mite’s bite is itching and causes skin inflammation. The leg’s skin may become thickened, crusty and scaly. The birds are considerably stressed. They scratch and bite themselves intensively. This can produce injuries and feather loss.
Blood lossi. Young birds are particularly susceptible. Decreased egg production in laying houses can be substantial. Stress and anemia make the birds more susceptible for other diseases. On top of this, Dermanyssus mites transmit several diseasese. Dermanyssus mites can infest poultry operations through numerous routes.
Wild birds that visit poultry houses can introduce mites. Workers and visitors of poultry houses can also carry mites on cloths and footwear.
Mites make be transported from one poultry house to another one within egg baskets and flats, barrows and many other items. Diagnosis of is made examining mites collected in the poultry house. The mites can be than examined under a magnifying glass or under a microscope.
Eggs with blood spots indicate infestation of the bird’s cloaca. Anemic birds may show paleness of wattle and comb. The northern fowl mite is also an obligate bloodsucking parasite. It occurs worldwide in regions with temperate climate. It is a major pest in intensive poultry operations, especially in layers but also in breeder-broiler operations as well as in free ranging and backyard chicken.
Knemidocoptes – WikiVet English
In the USA it is even more abundant than the red fowl mite. It attacks many domestic and wild bird speciesbut also rodents such as rats and micewhich can significantly contribute to its transmission. Northern fowl mites can also infest and bite humans.
Unlike red fowl mites that visit their hosts only for feeding, northern fowl mites spend their whole life on the host. All development stages i. Infestations often start around the vent and then spread towards the tail, the legs and the back. Since the mites spend their whole life on the birds, the feathers become progressively soiled with excrements, dead mites, dried blood, etc.
This cumulated dark dirt on the base of the feathers, particularly around the vent is often cnemiodcoptes clinical symptom for diagnosis.
Adult females lay 3 to 5 eggs at a time. Larvae hatch about 2 days later. Larvae do not feed and molt to nymphs 1 to 2 days later. Nymphs suck blood and after various molts become adults cnfmidocoptes about mutanss to 5 days. Under favorable conditions they can complete their life cycle as shortly cneimdocoptes in 7 days: Individual mites can survive off-the host for about 3 weeks without feeding.
In breeding operations roosters tend to be more heavily infested than hens.
In regions with a cold winter mite populations increase as the weather gets colder, peak in late winter and spring, and diminish progressively as the weather becomes hotter. Northern fowl mites can infest poultry operations through numerous routes.
Wild birds that visit or nest in poultry houses can introduce mites. Rats and mice can transmit mites from one poultry house to another one. And also workers and visitors of poultry houses can disseminate mites on cloths and footwear. Mites make also be transported from one poultry house to another one within egg baskets and flats, barrows and many other items. Harm to the birds can be substantial, especially for young birds.
However, individual birds may show significantly different susceptibility. Whereas one bird in a cage can be infested, other birds in the same cage may be not. And individual birds may support several thousand mites without major harm. In addition, northern fowl mites transmit several diseasese. Pasteurella multocida that causes avian cholerathe Newcastle disease virus.
This problem can become a serious issue: Diagnosis is usually done inspecting the vents of cnemidlcoptes birds for presence of mites and subsequent examination of the mites under microscope. The cnemidoco;tes of abundant dirt cnmidocoptes the base of the feathers cnemidocopte also a typical symptom of northern fowl mite infestation. The tropical fowl mite infests chicken as well as other domestic and wild birds in most tropical and subtropical regions of the world.
In certain regions it occurs together with the northern fowl mite. The behave very much like the northern fowl mite, have a similar life-cycle and are as harmful to poultry as northern fowl mites. Cnemidocotpes particular feature of tropical fowl mites is that they can cumulate in the nests of wild birds in and around human dwellings. When the wild birds leave their nests, hungry mites move into the buildings searching a prey, and they will attack any human they find. However, it is not as frequent as other mite species and prefers warmer climates.
It does not suck blood, but burrows into the skin along the shafts of the feathers, which easily break. Cnemidockptes birds bite themselves vigorously and may pull out their own feathers.
It can also cause cannibalism among the birds. The lifecycle can be completed in about one month. Transmission is by direct contact between the birds.
Infestations in modern operations are rare, more frequent on free ranging and backyard birds. For diagnosis a a few feathers close to a lesion can be pulled out and examined under the microscope. It does not suck blood but burrows into the skin tissues under the leg scales, causing inflammation and exudation.