An overview of the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ). To measure illness- and medication-related changes in sexual functioning. The Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ) is a item clinical and research instrument identifying five scales of sex- ual functioning. This study .
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June 11, ; Accepted date: July 05, ; Published date: J Addict Res Ther 8: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
In this study, a causalcomparative design was used.
Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ)
The instrument used in this study was the CSFQ which is a item questionnaire. All the study data were analyzed using SPSS software. An exploratory factor analysis revealed 3 factors: In addition, the results of a MANOVA analysis comparing the sexual functioning of sex addicts to that of non-addicts indicated significant differences between the two groups in all the three factors.
Therefore, the validated instrument can be useful in assessing the changes in sexual functioning. The study results also rejected the claim that drugs can solve sexual problems or lead to a feeling of greater sexual pleasure. Sexual dysfunction in men refers to an inability to have a pleasant sexual relationship that may result from erectile dysfunction, or some problems related to ejaculation or orgasm or pain in the penis during intercourse [ 1 ].
Research studies show that many heroin users begin using the drug in order to cure their sexual disorders, such as premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction.
These people also use opioids to control ejaculation, reduce anxiety during intercourse, have a more powerful erection, and reduce the feelings of incompetence in sexual activity [ 2 ].
In some cases, the use of cocaine and amphetamines has become associated with sexual desire, and many drug users are unable to separate sex and drug use. Several studies have shown that using low doses of drugs for a short period of time may improve some aspects of sexual functioning [ 3 – 8 ].
These benefits sometimes cause a person to start using drugs [ 9 ]. Drug users gradually increase the amount and duration of their use, but the benefits are short-lived. Therefore, they try to experience the benefits again, but there are often opposite effects, and drug tolerance and a decline in physical functioning begin to appear [ 10 ]. Finally, the increase in the amount and duration of drug use, leads to sexual dysfunction [ 811 – 17 ]. Other researchers have also found relationships between changes in sexual functioning and use of medications; these changes occur both in psychological and physiological areas, leading to sexual dysfunction or changes in sexual functioning [ 10 ].
Sexual dysfunction in men refers to an inability to have a pleasant sexual relationship that may result from erectile dysfunction, or some problems related to ejaculation or orgasm, or pain in the penis during intercourse.
In an interview study on people dependent on substances, Rostami et al.
Other sexual dysfunctions with the highest prevalence rates were sexual desire disorder Many factors are involved in sexual functioning, including psychological, neurological, hormonaland arterial factors. These disorders and sexual dysfunctions are more prevalent in addicts, because drugs directly affect the aforementioned bodily systems [ 19 ].
A Sexual aversion disorder: B Sexual arousal disorder: According to previous studies, sexual dysfunctions are highly prevalent in addict populations. But the prevalence rate and severity of sexual disorders has remained relatively unknown in Iran, due questionnxire a lack of research studies and related instruments. Moreover, it is needed to compare addicts and normal individuals in terms of sexual disorders, therefore, the present study aims to examine the psychometric properties of the CSFQ, as an instrument useful in clinical interventions, marital consultations etc.
The present study is a descriptive-survey research using a causalcomparative design. The statistical population suestionnaire two groups, consisting of addicts and normal individuals from Semnan. At first, a list of all uqestionnaire treatment questionaire in Semnan was prepared, then four centers were selected from different districts of Semnan. After obtaining the permissions of doctors and staff of the centers, the informed consents of addicts were obtained, and a total of addicts were selected as the study sample using a convenience sampling method.
A total of healthy individuals were also selected from the staff of Semnan University using a convenience sampling method. The inclusion criteria were as follows: Then, Participants completed the questionnaires. This questionnaire had a three-dimensional factor structure, including: A Sexual desire Item 1B Arousalorgasm that is the physical dimension of sexual functioning items 8,9,10,13 and 14and C Sexual pleasure that is the psychological dimension of sexual functioning items 2,3,4,5,6 and Items are rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale.
Higher scores on the items and the overall scale indicate better sexual functioning and lower scores indicate worse sexual functioning. Items 10 and 14 are reverse-scored. The data were described using descriptive cscq, including frequency distributions, measures of central tendency, and statistical dispersion.
Then, an exploratory factor analysis was used to validate the questionnaire. In the second step, the translated version of the questionnaire was translated again into English by an English expert. In the third step, the questionnaire was translated again into Persian by the English expert. Finally, the Persian version of the questionnaire was prepared by the researchers. In the next stage, the Persian version of the questionnaire was sent to two psychologists and three general practitioners and specialists to be examined in terms of its relatedness to sexual functioning and its understandability; in this stage, the necessary changes were made into the questionnaire and another version of that was developed.
The Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ): development, reliability, and validity.
Then, in a pilot study, the CSFQ was conducted on 20 volunteers from the sample, in order to detect the items that were unclear and difficult to understand.
After all these stages and making all the necessary changes, the final Persian version of the CSFQ was prepared. The final sample of this study included men addicted to drugs. The average age of participants was 35 years, and the mean and standard deviation of the years of drug use were 8.
In addition, 8 of the participants who were addicted to a drug other than opium opium was not their main drug stated that they had used opium too, or were still using that, 12 who were addicted to a drug other than methamphetamine reported that they had used methamphetamine too, and in this way, 6 had used crack, 2 had used hashish, and 2 had used different kinds of pills besides their main drug.
In order to determine the number of underlying factors and examine the characteristics of the 14 items of the CSFQ, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on all the sample data. Table 1 shows the correlations between the items of the CSFQ As you can see, the first item is totally correlated to itself, but is not highly correlated higher than 0.
In addition, as you can see, the correlations for the items 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 11 are relatively high higher than 0. The correlations for the items 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13 and 14 are also relatively high higher than 0. According to Table 2, the communalities of each item to total variance are high, therefore, questions of each factor assess exactly that specific factor and the factors are able to account for the variance of the variable.
In the primary analysis, three factors with eigenvalues higher than 1. Analysis of the scree-plot also confirmed the threefactor solution. Scree plot for determining the number of factors appropriate for extraction.
The Varimax rotation was used to simplify the factor structure. The findings showed that after factor rotation by the Varimax method, items csq to all the factors were loaded on their theoretical factors. The rotated questionnaaire matrix is presented below. The sexual arousal-orgasm and sexual pleasure factors had Cronbach’s alphas of 0. In addition, the sexual pleasure factor has a single item. Table 3 shows the means and standard deviations related to the comparison of the three sexual functioning variables in addicts and normal participants.
For all the three variables, the means and standard deviations of the two groups are different, and because the healthy group has higher mean scores we can conclude that they have a better and healthier sexual functioning.
The means and standard deviations related to the comparison of sexual functioning in addicts and normal participants. Tables 4 and 5 shows the results of the multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA for examination of significant differences between addicts and healthy participants in sexual functioning. A post-hoc test was used to determine the differences in the three sexual functioning variables.
The results are shown in the table below. The results of a univariate ANOVA with Bonferroni correction to describe the direction of difference between addicts and normal participants in the three sexual functioning variables. Table 7 shows the results of a univariate ANOVA with Bonferroni correction to describe the direction of difference between addicts and normal participants in the three sexual functioning variables.
Quextionnaire to the descriptive statistics presented in Table 4we can conclude that questjonnaire sexual functioning of healthy individuals is better and stronger than addicts. This study had two objectives: The first objective of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the CSFQ in people dependent on drugs and compare sexual functioning in addicts and healthy people.
The results of a factor analysis for validation of the questionnaire showed that it has a three-dimensional factor structure, including A Auestionnaire desire Item 1B Arousal-orgasm that is the physical dimension of sexual functioning items 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, and 14and C sexual pleasure that is the psychological dimension of sexual functioning items 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and Therefore in the present study, good psychometric properties and factor structure of the CSFQ were confirmed.
In addition, a comparison of the sexual functioning in addicts and non-addicts was another objective of the present study. The results showed that the sexual functioning was significantly different in addicts and healthy individuals. These results are consistent with the results of previous studies [ 810 – 1315 – 17 csq. A reason for this could be the impact of drugs on the factors involved in sexual functioning, among which the most important ones include psychological, neurologicalhormonal, and arterial factors.
Sexual disorders and dysfunctions are more prevalent in people addicted to drugs, because drugs have a direct impact on the cwfq bodily systems [ 19 ].
Some of the other drugs like amphetamine and cocaine cause neurons to create a large amount of neurotransmitters, or prevent the normal circulation of these chemicals in the brain. These impairments lead to the creation of a very powerful message in the brain, and qhestionnaire a result, the communication channels of the brain are impaired. Drug use leads to genital vascular problems and sexual dysfunction. Those who are addicted to drugs or had used drugs for a long time in the past, and now have quiet using drugs, are more likely to have sexual problems than those who have never used drugs.
As addiction can cause atherosclerosis in other arteries of the body, it can also narrow the penile arteries, and affect the average blood pressure in the sex organ.
Therefore, it gradually leads to sexual dysfunction.
Duration of drug use also have direct effects on the degree of dysfunction. Drug use impairs the movement of cilia and bronchi, and it can similarly impair the movement of sperms and cause Infertility [ 810 – 1315 – 1719 ].
Another reason for the impact of drug use on sexual desire is that after using some drugs, an amount of dopamine is released in the brain that is 2 to 10 times higher than the amount of dopamine released during the natural feeling of pleasure.
The excessive feeling of pleasure resulting from drugs cause people to continue using drugs. When the brain is faced with a large amount of dopamine and other neurotransmitters, it releases less dopamine, or reduces the number of receptors to receive less signals, therefore the amount of dopamine released in the brain of a drug user decreases in an unusual manner, and the ability of the brain to feel pleasure decreases significantly.
It is in this stage that they are forced to use more drugs to have the normal levels of dopamine, and develop tolerance to the drug National Drug Research Institute. It is obvious that sexual desire is also controlled by this brain system.