Location: BP E , Avenue de l’oua villa B5 Porte , Faladié Sokoro, Bamako . , date “On the approval of the tariffs for the services Decreto Nº /39 (Presentación a depósito en custodia de las obras inéditas ). Method: Integrative literature review using the descriptors: street people, health policy and Objetivo: Conocer la producción científica brasileña de los últimos diez años ( a ) sobre las Decreto n0 de dezembro de . Available from: pdf. Camabatela – At least citizens of both genders were taught to read and write between and , in the municipality of Ambaca, northern Cuanza.
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Departamento de Pesca e Aquicultura. The most common problems in the fish processing industry relate to high water consumption and the generation of effluents with concentrated organic loads. Given that reuse can represent an alternative for sustainable development, this study sought to assess the potential for decreo effluents produced in a decreho plant.
In order to do so, the final industrial effluent was analyzed using the American Public Health Association standard effluent-analysis method APHA, In addition, the study assessed treatments which produce effluents meeting the requirements prescribed by different countries’ regulations for reuse and recycling. The results found that effluents with smaller organic loads, such as those from health barriers and monoblock washing, can be treated in order to remove nutrients and solids so that they can be subsequently reused.
For effluents produced by deecreto washing and gutting cylinders, it is recommended that large fragments of solid waste be removed beforehand. Effluents can in this way attain a quality compatible with industrial reuse. This study further highlights the possibility of treating effluents so as comply with drinking water standards. This would potentially allow them to be used within the actual fish-processing procedure; in such a case, a revision of standards and measures for controlling use should be considered to prevent microbiological damage to products and risks to handlers and final consumers.
Of note is the growth of the aquaculture sector, the expansion of which is attributed to the emergence of public policies to encourage the production and consumption of fish.
The use of water is necessary for the transformation of the raw material into products destined to the consumer. Since the 49800 volume of effluent is directly related to the amount of water used, reuse and recycling should be considered as possibilities for minimizing water use, and the consequent generation of effluents.
However, those alternatives have not been implemented in most food industries, given the lack of information available on the production, treatment and use of the effluent.
In food industries, care must be taken regarding the risks related to product integrity, the environment, and the health of manipulators and consumers; therefore, Brazilian legislation allows only the use of drinking water from natural sources in these industries Brazil, There are several international guidelines that address the possibilities of reuse. Some countries take the lead in terms of industrial reuse, such as the United States of America. Europe also stands out, although there are no regulations at a EU level.
Several Member States and autonomous regions have produced their own legislative frameworks, regulations or guidelines for water-reuse applications Alcalde-Sanz and Gawlik, Of the EU members, Greece and Spain stand out because they have dcreto that apply to a large number of uses, including a precise description of the quality requirements for each application.
The Greek standards apply stringent limits for some industrial uses, and unrestricted irrigation, aquifer recharge and urban uses, based on FAO’s Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations recommendations on irrigation water quality Ayers and Westcot, This regulatory norm also defines the classes of water of reuse, and the respective quality standards. The modalities outlined by the Resolution were reuse for urban purposes, reuse for agricultural and forestry purposes, reuse 49880 environmental purposes, reuse for industrial purposes and reuse in aquaculture.
The standards, procedures and legislation applicable to reuse are in general defined, creating parameters and reference values for uses in agriculture, aquifer recharge, and urban and industrial scenarios.
In relation to the quality of water used in the processing of fish products, the following regulations are applied: The decree also creates water quality standards to be used in animal food industries. Despite Brazilian decrees that regulate the reuse of treated water in the preparation, handling and packaging of food for various purposes, the process is mainly impeded by the risk of contamination, concern about consumer acceptance, and the lack of specific regulations.
Due to a lack of relating studies or experience, these could not be based upon knowledge gleaned through scientific analysis, which is why this practice is currently not recommended in Brazil Matsumura and Mierzwa, Therefore, studies should be carried out to guide the implementation of the practice, given the importance of the associated environmental, social and economic factors. Since a large volume of effluent is generated by the fish processing industry, this study aimed to evaluate its potential reuse or recycling, and to explore scenarios for its reuse in industrial processes.
The study was conducted in a fish warehouse in the northern region of Brazil that produces fresh gutted fish of various species.
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The warehouse has processing decerto of 12 tonnes per day, and as shown in Figure 1it is subdivided into three areas: For processing, the fish is sent to the dirty area and the 207 cleaning is carried out in a washing cylinder, where effluent is generated Point A, Figure 1.
The carcass then moves to the clean area, for abdominal incision, evisceration and cleaning. The fish is then placed in monoblocs for weighing and the addition of flaked ice.
The fish is ready for decrwto after its temperature is stabilized. After fish processing, the monoblocs, the floors, the equipment and the ice maker are cleaned. Each of these stages generates effluents. The effluent of Point B Figure 1 is from health barriers process employee hygiene and washing of monoblocs, floors and equipments.
For the qualitative characterization of all effluents of Points A and B data not shown and the final effluent of the process Point C, Figure 1eleven samples were collected and physical, chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed using the standard guidelines for water and sewage analysis developed by APHA The parameters characterized were: Flow chart showing the fish processing, cleaning procedure and ice production in the plant studied.
These regulations, guidelines and standards specify the concentrations allowed for industrial reuse. In general, effluents from fish processing have varied characteristics, depending on the particular processes that produce them, the type of fish Alexandre et al.
For this study, the characterization of the effluent generated in a fish processing industry was carried out to evaluate its reuse or recycling potential Table 2. From the parameters evaluated, some results show a discrepancy in the concentrations found, as expected, for BOD, pH and TSS, when compared to the results of other studies Table 2. Characterization of effluents from fish processing units.
Muthukumaran and Baskaran ; Lima et al. While it is uncommon to do so, this study evaluated thermo-tolerant coliforms in order to assess the sanitary quality of the effluent, with a view to reuse. In this study Table 2the BOD 5 concentration varied from For turbidity, this study obtained between This parameter was not explored in other studies, but was considered important because it is directly associated with suspended solids, which tends to have high concentrations in the effluent of fish processing industries Artiga et al.
The pH was between 5. This resembled the effluents characterized by Muthukumaran and Baskaran Table 2 for fresh gutted squid and scallops processing industry, but was far from the value found by Lima et al.
In the case of canning industries, there are also steps such as brining, canning, cooking, adding oil or sauce, canning, can washing, autoclaving and washing for cooling. In addition to the wash waters of the fish, there is water from floor washing and from equipment, which is included in the industrial effluent. In case of non-compliance with the minimum requirements prescribed by regulations, ordinances and the like, the effluent must be treated in order to achieve at least the minimum requirements.
Therefore, in order to evaluate the potential for reuse of effluents from fish processing, the effluent characteristics of the studied industry were compared with existing regulations for industrial reuse Table 3. When the quality of these effluents did not achieve the regulation requirements, treatments are proposed to achieve the required quality for reuse and recycle Table 3. Although the characteristics of the effluent studied do not meet the requirements of the ABNT and EPA regulations, effluents can be treated to enable reuse.
The BOD concentration found was between However, adopting the treatment proposal of Queiroz et al. The need to remove TSS from the effluent is therefore evident. When the effluent was submitted to activated sludge treatment followed by osmosis, the removal percentage achieved was The removal of Potential industrial reuse of effluents produced by the fish processing plant and treatment proposed to comply with regulations and standards.
Regarding turbidity, this parameter is directly related to the concentration of the suspended solids in the water; therefore, when suspended solids are removed, this parameter is also reduced.
It was determined that the pH parameter should be evaluated after applying treatment to remove or decrease the concentration of the previously presented parameters. The analyses of this study indicate that there may be minimal need for adjustment in this parameter, since it is close to the range of decrreto presented by fe regulations Table 3.
Considering the characteristics of the effluents from Point A the washing cylinder and evisceration stagesPoint B from health barriers process employee hygiene and washing of 49980, floors and equipments and Point C final effluentreuse is recommended 44980 treatment as specified in Figure 2.
The effluents of Point B can be recycled after simple treatment to remove suspended solids and to disinfect. To treat the effluent from the washing cylinder and evisceration stages aiming reuse, it is therefore necessary to remove organic matter and solids, common in effluents which contain blood, fish remains and viscera. The effluent must also be disinfected before it may be used for disinfection of drinking fecreto in sanitary vessels, garden watering, in the sanitary barrier, in the washing of the floors internal and external to the industry as well as re-insertion into the productive process.
This dfcreto was edcreto found not only in fish industries, but also in poultry processing, studied by Luiz et al. Studies show that even the most concentrated effluents, when treated, can achieve water potability standards and can be applied to the same uses as fresh water, were it not for the restrictions of application and acceptance of this practice in the food industry. The direct recycling and reuse of effluent of the food preparation, handling and packaging processes are more restricted due to the industry’s own strict cleaning- and hygiene requirements Chowdhury et al.
Although Brazilian legislation allows only the use of drinking water in procedures that have contact with food in the industries Brazil,there are international organizations such as Codex Alimenarius ; that, in addition to recognizing, encourage the use of techniques of direct 4908 indirect reuse in food industries, as long as these do not pose risks to the health of the manipulators and consumers, or to the environment or the integrity of the product.
In this context, the objective of this study was to identify the possibility of decrfto water use and to evaluate the reuse potential of effluent from the fish-processing industry. Potential recycling and reuse of decrteo in the fish processing industry.
Considering the potential of reuse or recycling of generated effluents, the characterization of the effluent verified that parameter BOD does not comply with any of the norms consulted regarding industrial reuse. Further, it does not comply with Brazilian or US regulations.
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However, if the effluent is treated to mitigate its organic and solid content and microbiological characteristics, reuse is possible. The effluent may be pre-treated with membrane filtration and UV disinfection, and later with nano-filtration followed by reverse osmosis.
The resulting effluent will be drinking-water quality. Regarding TSS, the effluent can meet North American and Spanish requirements if it is submitted to activated sludge treatments followed by osmosis. Regarding pH, this study indicates that there may be a minimal need for adjustment in this parameter, since it is close to the range of values presented by the studied norm.
Rio de Janeiro, Design of an integrated bioprocess for the treatment of tuna processing liquid effluents. Water Reuse in Europe: Relevant guidelines, needs for and barriers to innovation.
Performance of anaerobic bioreactor treating decrefo plant wastewater pre-hydrolyzed with a solid enzyme pool. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Use of a hybrid membrane bioreactor decrwto the treatment of saline wastewater from a fish canning factory. Water quality for agriculture. Irrigation and Drainage paper, Biological treatment processes for fish processing wastewater – A review. Codex Committee on Food Hygiene.
Bangkok, October Primary treatment optimization of a fish canning wastewater from a Portuguese plant.