Other parts of pineapple are also investigated for the presence of bromelain () including peel, core and crown etc. Extraction of bromelain from. EXTRACTION, PURIFICATION OF BROMELAIN FROM PINEAPPLE AND DETERMINATION OF ITS EFFECT ON BACTERIA CAUSING. et al recorded the first isolation of bromelain in from Bromelain is a crude protein extract obtained from pineapple fruit and stem, which comprises a.
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Bromelain is a concoction of sulfhydryl proteolytic enzymes. Bromelain remain enzymatic active over a broad spectrumand endure a range of pH 5. It is one of the extensively investigated proteolytic enzyme owing to its astonishing applications in various industries.
Bromelaij necessitated employing a strategy that result in highest purified bromelain in less steps and lowest cost.
Bromelain: Methods of Extraction, Purification and Therapeutic Applications
Use of modernistic approach such as membrane filtration, reverse micellar systems, aqueous two phase extraction and chromatographic techniques have shown promise in this regard.
Besides its industrial applications, bromelain has been widely utilized as a potential phytomedical compound. Bromelaiin of its reported actions include inhibition of platelet aggregation, anti-edematous, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, modulation of cytokines and immunity, skin debridement and fibrinolytic activity.
It also assist digestion, enhance absorption of other drugs and is a potential postoperatively agent that promote wound healing and reduce postsurgical discomfort and swelling. Bromelain is a chief protease enzymes found in pineapple plant Ananascomosus Smith- Marshall and Golden It has been known chemically since Tochi et al. The rbomelain and isolation of bromelain has been started since Neta et al. Sulfhydryl beomelain enzymes are the chief constituents of bromelain Tochi et al.
Bromelain is abundant in stem and fruit of pineapple plant and it can also be isolated in small amount from pineapple waste such as core, leaves, peel etc. Bromelain present in fruit of pineapple has assigned the EC number EC 3. Stem bromelain possess different biochemical properties and composition as compared to fruit bromelain Pavan et al.
Efforts are being made by researchers to achieve highly purified bromelain in less steps and low cost. Modern strategies, such as membrane filtration Lopes et al.
Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.
Pineapple plant also contains minor quantities of other proteinases like ananain and comosain Nadzirah et al. The reason of being such valuable is due to its miraculous utilization as phytomedical compound Larocca et al.
Bromelain gromelain antiedematous, fibrinolytic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, anticoagulative and antithrombotic functions Kavitha et al. It is also a potential postoperatively agent that assists healing and decrease post surgical discomfort and swelling Graf Besides clinical approach, bromelain has also employed in various industries including food industries Maurersuch as breweries Soares et al.
With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, scientists and researchers across the globe have been working on recombinant bromelain to achieve exaggerate and novel applications in future Arshad et al.
Bromelain is actually a group of sulfhydryl proteolytic enzymes Smith-Marshall and Golden bromelaib encompasses variety of cysteine proteases Tochi et al. Stem bromelain and fruit bromelain are both single-chain glycosylated enzymes but they possess different characteristics Barrett et al.
Researchers have reported several distinct pH and temperature optima for the activity of brokelain towards its substrates De Lencastre et al. Amongst other, cysteine is the most efficient compound for the activation of bromelain Grzonka et al.
SBM is in fact a combination of several thiol endopeptidases Pavan et al. Besides its clinical applications bromelain has been subjected to many other industries due to its enormous benefits.
Pjneapple thereby are trying various conventional as well as latest purification techniques to achieve bromelain in highest purified form exttraction reduced cost Arshad et al. As compared to fruit, bromelain concentration is high in stem and is thus a cheaply available source of bromelain Tochi et al. Other parts of pineapple are also investigated for the presence of bromelain Ketnawa et al. Extraction of bromelain from these parts is attractive not only from environmental point of view but also economically Novaes et al.
Bromelain can be easily extracted from the juice of pineapple by ultrafiltration Larocca et al. Extractjon marketable bromelain is mostly extracted from the stem of pineapple through centrifugation, ultrafiltration, lyophilization Corzo et al.
Once extracted, the crude mixture containing required enzyme is then exposed to numerous purification stages to eradicate impurities that may interfere with bromelain to hinder its application and reduce the specific activity of the enzyme Illanes Product purity is the key factor which may constitute a large proportion of the total enzyme production cost Lightfoot Several conventional isolation and purification techniques are now obsoleted because of their low purification potential Soares et al.
So the extraction and purification strategy Figure 1 designed should be selective for the desired product, cheap, high yielding and speedy Gupta et al. Due to increased interest of scientists toward bromelain, several new purification techniques have been employed for its extraction and purification Table no. Micelle is an aggregate of molecules possessing both polar and non-polar regions.
Reverse micelles are thermodynamically stable, minute surfactants that hold water in their interior surrounded by organic phase Andray et al.
Only protein of interest is entrapped in micelle Figure 2 whereas other impurities remain in organic phase Lee and Chong Reverse micellar system is an encouraging strategy for downstream processing.
It is ideal to extract biomolecules through diluted samples. Reverse micellar system possess higher sample loading capacity, are specific and easy to operate Chen et al.
RMS are also being used for the extraction and purification of bromelain from ananas stem and waste. There is also reported use of RMS for extraction of bromelain from pineapple where it yielded Researchers are implementing various modifications in RMS to upgrade the yield and purification fold. To purify bromelain at larger scale, scale-up studies by phase transfer mode of reverse micellar system are also performed which yielded purification fold of 2. To uplift the efficacy of process RMS coupled with ultrafiltration was also studied which resulted in an activity recovery of The use of affinity based reverse micellar extraction and separation technique to extract and purify bromelain from pineapple waste yielded purification of Moreover the process optimization studies for RMS had been reported Fileti et al.
A neutral model developed for bromelain extraction from pineapple juice by RMS under optimized conditions gave 4. The aqueous two-phase systems consists of a polymer and a salt or two polymers and have been regarded as extensively used tools for extraction and purification of biomolecules Rabelo et al.
It is low cost, rapid, possess reusable polymers Johansson et al.
ATPS is reported as a challenging technique for the separation of molecules that are hard to be separated through other methods and preferred to be used in initial stages Gupta et al. High active recovery of enzymes during ATPS is due to the presence of PEG which causes alteration in the structure of active sites of the enzyme.
Researchers have reported the used ATPS for extraction and purification of bromelain from stem and peel of pineapple Ferreira et al. ATPS has been used to recover bromelain from the peel of pineapple and gave In order to optimize the separation of bromelain response surface methodology has been worked in ATPS that yielded When thermodynamic equilibrium and ATPS were employed together for the purification of bromelain, purification fold came out to be among Ferreira et al.
Moreover, thermoseparation of bromelain resulted in active recovery of Chromatographic techniques significantly conserve the structure of purified protein Gautam et al. Several chromatographic techniques such as ion exchange chromatography Hung et al. All these techniques possess different specifications thus result in different purification efficiency and recovery Yin et al.
Amongst these, ion exchange chromatography IEX is extensivelyemployed for bromelain separation Devi and Sowmiya, Ion exchange chromatography is highly specific, scalable, reliable and a cheap purification method Ng et al.
High-speed counter-current chromatography HSCCC has also been used to purify bromelain which generated 3. Immobilized metal affinity membrane IMAM has been employed to purify bromelain which resulted in In the same context, 13 fold purification factor was achieved when bromelain was adsorbed in expanded bed Silveira et al.
Membrane filtration employs the use of membranes to purify molecules on the basis of size difference. It includes microfiltration and ultrafiltration and is considered quite useful for enzymes seclusion as well as concentration Cassano et al. Membrane filtration is being used for the isolation and purification of bromelain. Membrane filtration in conjugation with other processes results in enhanced purification of bromelain.
When stem bromelain was adsorbed on nano-TiO 2 and then passes through ultrafilters, 5. In a study three methods Kaolin adsorption, ultrafiltration and tannin precipitation were performed and compared for bromelain purification. Bromelain with highest proteolytic activity was obtained by ultrafiltration Li et al. Various other methods have also been worked to separate bromelain and resulted in enhances active recovery and purification fold.
Ammonium sulfate precipitation is a cheap and extensively used method for protein purification Saxena et al. Ammonium sulfate precipitation resulted in 2.
In a study ethanolic extraction, isoelectric focusing and ammonium sulfate precipitation were compared for the extraction of bromelain. Amongst these three, ethanolic extract resulted in highest bromelain yield Silvestre et al.
The purification factor achieved after using ethanol was 2. The use of recyclable mesoporous silica to adsorb bromelain from pineapple juice resulted in 6.
Bromelain has been known for its vast commercial applications. It is being used in food and beverage industries Neta et al. Besides its industrial applications, bromelain possess multiple therapeutic actions Summarized in Table no.
Some of its reported actions include inhibition of platelet aggregation, anti-edema MacKay et al. Some of its therapeutic applications are briefly discussed below. Summary of clinical applications of Bromelain.
Inflammation is the body’s attempt of self-protection which takes into account the discharge of various factors that causes the distention of capillary and enhances their permeability, as a result of which the tissues appear to be inflated and inflamed Jaber Mostly NSAIDS non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed to ward off the classical signs of inflammation Calor, dolor, rubor and tumor Charles et al.
Anti-inflammatory action of bromelain is mediated by retarding the formation of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins Grafreducing the cell surface receptors such as hyaluronan receptor CD44 and plasma fibrinogen levels Yuan et al. Effect of Bromelain on certain mediators of acute inflammation. Rhinosinusitis results in inflammation of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses Guo et al.
Bromelain is an effective mucolytic agent and is being efficiently used in rhinitis, rhinosinusitis as well as in chronic rhinosinusitis Guo et al. It decreases the formation of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin and reduces swelling in nasal passages Helms and Miller Bromelain also decrease mucus production and aids its drainage Tochi et al.