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Log In Sign Up. Agostino Valier and the Company of St. Sentieri pedagogici e spazi educativi Ramaekers, S. This article explores the relationship between Resumen: Educating to wonder cannot be reduced to a simple question of methods and projects: Being able to rediscover wonder is crucial, not only for the young who need to find their way in life, but for any person who is open to knowledge and has an educa- tional role.
Educators, in fact, are required to exercise the ability to wonder in order to be able to spot educational possibilities in every situation and every person.
People who are capable of being surprised are attentive, open to the world and to others, in search of a meaning for their existence. As we are taught by philosophers of all times, wonder can be experienced in different ways: As a consequence, people are seeking a more genuine life-style that al- lows them to fight apathy, routine, demotivation and a general sense of frustration.
Anthropologically, wonder may be associated with childhood. Growth and maturation start the dynamics of adult life, the understanding of reality through abstract concepts which, though useful for orientation in everyday life, make us forgetful of the child we were and incapable of perceiving the mystery and beauty of existence Musaio, In addition, it becomes increasingly difficult to get in tune with the deepest and most valuable part of our inner self and with our emotional world.
The effects of an era in which the aesthetic component of feelings prevails, clearly marks the difference between present and past generations. As noted by Perniola, in the past life appeared as something to feel and experience, a source of joy or pain, of emotional and spiritual participation.
People cultivated expectations, ideals, a sense of surprise towards life, which sometimes left them disappointed.
Sarramona, Jaume – Fundamentos de la Educación
By acting as mirrors of pre- established experiences, we become incapable of genuine feelings. He is therefore a mixture of disenchantment and asceticism: The influence exerted by these existential changes has fostered ambivalent at- titudes in the younger generations: What are the instruments to start facing reality with renewed spirit and gen- uine interest? How to recover our capacity of being surprised?
The surprise that man experiences for the very fact of existing is at the origin of various human creations, such as myths, phi- losophy, religions.
The capacity of establishing relations between our inner self and the reality around us carries big consequences, and almost always produces a set of reactions: It is neither obvious nor granted for mankind to know to exist in a particular place at a particular time.
Indeed, that explains why man has always been hunted by questions. Overtime, these primary questions have given way dde wonder which, in turn, has laid the foun- dations swrramona philosophy by gradually freeing the logos from the fantastic implications of the myth.
De la instrucción a la literalización
The myth supplies the logos with new inputs: It is indeed the power of faith, rising from educavion myth, that Plato entrusts with the task of guiding the human soul to transcenden- tal levels. This theory may provide a useful pedagogical approach by establishing an analogy between childhood of the human kind and childhood sarrxmona the person.
See, on this regard, J. Wonder, under- stood as the philosophical and naive fundamnetos at reality, can be described as follows: At the origins of philosophy and of all great philosophical questions, the concept of wonder is already present in Plato and Ar- istotle. In the Theaetetus, through Socrates, Plato says: In Plato, won- der has a key role in the development of knowledge which, in an early stage, he compares with the sense of sight Plato, Cratylus, b—d because, in a still im- sagramona way, it allows what is inside and what is outside of us to meet: Aristotle provides us with a detailed explanation: At this point, in fact, they were able to investigate without being distracted by other needs whatsoever.
Wonder springs into our lives as a source from fundamenos we start to explore our- selves. It follows the necessity to recover the onto- logical dimension of education, through a series of approaches aimed at opening the mind to explore reality in all its forms, including mystery and the idea of a tran- scendent Being.
So both philosophy and theology deal with the theme of wonder in relation to the questions that man asks about existence. If on one hand it represents a sort of awakening of the awareness of the origin, on the other it testifies that our percep- tions of reality can go beyond a purely rational explanation.
Man is an inside always projected towards the outside, carrying within himself an aspiration to go beyond his limits.
De la instrucción a la literalización | Revista Electrónica Educare
Endless anxiety accompanies him because he is conscious of his frailty, and this explains his tension towards the transcendent. But this possibility sadramona somehow diminished. By standing in awe in front of reality, we experience a continuous attraction to- wards transcendence.
When we wonder we do not stop at mere surprise, but we start a chain-reaction of questions and answers, with important repercussions on the educational level, as long as sducacion encourage independent and innovative re- sponses. If what surprises us in wonder and calls our attention is the truth and the ul- timate essence of something, it is precisely this essence of fundamento, of reality, of peo- ple around us, that can rouse us from the dullness of educacjon daily life, and prompt a quest on our way of being.
In fact, it is an experience that turns seeing into watch- ing, into an exploration of our inner self. Wonder starts a process of introspection which can sometimes be very arduous, especially in the critical moments of our existence. On this regard, I would like to quote the intense words of S. Augustine where he explains that wonder can be perceived as a strong experience, aimed at reminding us of our inner search: My mind must be too nar- row to contain itself! It must eduucacion in- side my mind, not out of it.
Augustin, Confesions, X, With practice, even common events from the daily life or things we are ac- customed to, may cause surprise: The very moment we start to explore the world we become capable of surprise.
Both attitudes suggest that wonder is a complex feeling. In other words, it is related to the experience we have of ourselves as existing-speaking-feeling-thinking units, as unique sources of interior- ity. The curiosity of childhood is a source of questions which, if properly answered, help to build self-confidence and to trust other people as something good to know and interact with.
Curiosity acts as an impulse to an saarramona attitude, but it needs to be fed and directed. Fundammentos then intervenes by funndamentos curiosity with a se- mantic mode for the different areas of daily life: The way children question about things, undoubtedly show the features typical of their age. Then, around six, seven years of age, the relations between facts and mental contents drawn from experience get more or- educacoon through the introduction of the how?
Through an evolution made of continuous questions, answers and explana- tions, knowledge reaches a degree of further complexity around ten-eleven years of age, with the development of intuitive and symbolic thinking.
At this stage, in fact, the boy becomes able to perform mental operations and to form pictures in his mind without relying on sensory perceptions. The progress of thought, with the de- velopment of sducacion, opens to a wide range of cognitive operations focused, not only on the real, but also on the possible, and introduces critical thinking, es- sential for the achievement of an increasingly personal knowledge.
Since the eighties, teaching to think has gradually become more of a synonym of education to critical thinking. The first, based on the transmission of knowledge, the distinction between disciplines, the role of the teacher edudacion the educational process, favours the acquisition of knowl- edge in the belief that an educated mind is a mind well provided with information.
The critical thinking follows the principles of rationality funeamentos, argumentation, deduction, induction, shape, structure and composition of what is known. The creative thinking highlights the surprise factor: Fi- nally, the caring thinking, refers to our dedication to what we appreciate and rec- ognize sarramonq worthy. From a pedagogical point of view, the emphasis on the difference between eduaccion wonder and existential wonder does not limit the relation between thinking and learn- ing to the activation of a series of cognitive processes, but it explores this relation in connection with the formation of eduacion individual.
There are, of course, different educational ap- proaches to help children practice ,a wonder ability: What- ever the model adopted, however, it must generate questions within us and conse- quently direct our actions. And since to develop the art of good thinking you must con- sider thought in its potential aspect, the first step to take is getting in touch with the original wonder, similar to the one experienced by the artist and the child in front of reality.
Indeed, in their questioning, that may appear trivial or obvious to adults, they are often capable of a sensitivity to the wonderful quite close to philosophy. Although there are various approaches to thought, we become really capable of thinking when we catch the essence of our being and discover our true self. Var- ious are the methods that can help us thinking, but they must lz tend to a single, superior goal. On the planet of the Little Prince the daily succession of 43 sunsets does not induce xarramona the child indifference educaciob habit, on the contrary, he still manages to be surprised, because he is able to look at things from the inside: Wonder is a look that transforms seeing into looking inside ourselves and therefore involves the way we feel, think, dducacion act, educating us to a choral feeling, both aesthetically and morally or- ganized.
That explains why the feeling of wonder is being studied with great interest by aesthetic and ethic philosophy. From this combination of surprise and contem- plation comes the aesthetic pleasure Pareyson,pp. When we marvel before something, we feel pleasure both for the surprise and interest it arouses in us, and for the look that stays and focuses on that something. Hence we can deduce that wonder encloses all practicable routes towards research and interpretation, that we may learn and de- velop: The implications of wonder are all the more relevant today, in front of ethical behaviours marked by apathy, in- difference and lack of confidence.
If good is what attracts, arous- ing cheerfulness and serenity, educcion sublime is what moves, producing admiration and wonder.
The moral dimension of wonder further highlights its educational role: What makes the difference in the things that attract our attention by arising wonder, is the peculiarity of the approach: What we experience starts a process within ourselves which, in turn, generates something else and casts a provocation. For this reason education cannot be reduced to a routine, nor can it be allowed to standardize the original traits of the personalities that are taking shape before us, asking to be recognized and respected.
On this regard Stefanini says: To expand the breath of our soul we must accept to be questioned by: Today, the real priority of any pedagogic discussion seems to be a re-discovery of the origins as a condition to revive the educational mission. I believe that the re-discov- fundamentoos of wonder may represent a good start for an educational program apt to be de- veloped together with the learning subjects.
In the unity of the educational act every teacher must look, listen and plan for and with the person, and watch things, people and events, from a higher point of tundamentos, looking beyond the here and the now.
It is true that to develop educa- tional programs to wonder, educators have to deal with an external contest formed by the parties involved, the operating conditions, the projects and actions to be imple- mented, the required educational skills.
The practice of active education however, cannot be only functional: Educating to wonder is a route towards the re-discov- ery of the individual dimension of education, starting from within the person in an effort to capture the beautiful, the good, and the true that everybody carries inside, that the educator has the responsibility to recognize and promote.
April 16th, Revised manuscript received: