Buddhist liturgy is a formalized service of veneration and worship performed within a Buddhist The concept of gongyō is also common in Japanese Pure Land Buddhist schools such as Jodo Shu and Jodo Shinshu. . SGI-USA. p. vi. ISBN ^ Nichiren-Shu Service Book: Dharma, Nichiren. Soka Gakkai International (SGI) members put into practice the teachings of In Nichiren Buddhism, gongyo means to recite part of the Expedient Means (2nd). For a full explanation of the meaning of the passages we recite in gongyo, it is worth reading SGI President Daisaku Ikeda’s lectures in the book The Heart of the.
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Buddhist liturgy is a formalized service of veneration and worship performed within a Buddhist Sangha community in nearly every traditional denomination and sect in the Buddhist world.
Buddhist liturgy – Wikipedia
It is often done one or more times a day and can vary amongst the TheravadaMahayanaand Vajrayana sects. The liturgy mainly consists of chanting or reciting a sutra or passages from a sutra, a mantra especially in Vajrayanaand several gathas. Depending on what practice the practitioner wishes to undertake, it can be done at a temple or at home. The traditional Chinese Buddhist liturgy for morning chanting simplified Chinese: A typical order for chanting at these services is: All three terms are common Japanese words and none is specific to any particular sect or school.
The word Gongyo originated in ancient China; although nowadays it is more often used in Buddhism, it first appeared in the Taoism classic Zhuang Zi.
Chinese philosopher Zhuangzi abstracted and modified this word from an earlier classic of Taoism – Laozi’s Tao Te Chingin which it states: During the Sui and Tang dynasties, the buddhist philosophy developed dramatically in central China, and was influenced by Taoism. Chinese Buddhist philosophers borrowed this word from Taoism classics, and it spread to Korea, Japan, Vietnam with Buddhism. The central practice of these schools is the recitation of the name of Amidaalso called the nembutsubut in daily practice a Pure Land practitioner will also chant excerpts of the Larger Sutra of Immeasurable Lifeparticular the sections titled the Sanbutsuge or the Juseigeand in some temples chanting the entire Smaller Sutra of Immeasurable Life may occur once daily or alternatively only on more formal occasions.
In larger Pure Land temples, the daily service is performed by priests or ministers, and lay people can optionally attend and recite along if they wish. The times for these services will vary depending on the individual branch, and individual temple. In traditional Jodo Shinshu Buddhism, lay practitioners may also chant a hymn written by Shinran called the Shoshingewhich is not a sutra per sebut expounds the lineage with which Jodo Shinshu owes its beliefs.
A shorter hymn called the Juniraithe Twelve Praises of Amidacan be used as well. The gongyo of Shingon Buddhism differs amongst various sub-sects, but all of them mainly recite the Hannya Shingyothe mantras of the Thirteen Buddhas and other mantras, the Light Mantraand the gohogo ; the saintly name of Kukai.
Nichiren Buddhists perform a form of gongyo that consists of reciting certain passages of the Lotus Sutra and chanting daimoku. The format of gongyo varies by denomination and sect. Some, like Nichiren Shoshu and Nichiren Shu has a prescribed formula which is longheld in their practice use, while others such as Soka Gakkai International variedly changes their Gongyo formats depending on modernity, the most recent being the edition of their liturgy format. In the Soka Gakkaigongyo is performed to “return to the very foundation of our lives” and “draw wisdom” from inherent Buddha nature and achieves “the fusion or reality and wisdom” .
Nichiren established no formal procedure for gongyo other than the recitation of the 2nd and 16th chapters of the Lotus Sutra, and at times even just the verse section of the 16th chapter. Hence the format had vongyo from time to time through the centuries.
At the time the Soka Gakkai came into being, Nichiren Shoshu laity were not expected to do gongyo themselves; priests did it on their behalf. The first two presidents, Tsunesaburo Makiguchi and Josei Toda, taught members “not ggongyo hire priests to chant, as had long been customary, but to chant for themselves, a change they found both disarming and empowering” .
The current format has evolved over the years. Originally, it followed the format of Nichiren Shoshuu. In the 70s, silent prayers were added for the success of the Soka Gakkai itself, and in memory of its first sgii deceased presidents.
What is Gongyo?
By the 90s, prayers of appreciation for the priesthood were abandoned. Currently, after the recitation of the 2nd chapter and the verse section of the 16th chapter, daimoku is chanted gpngyo as long as desired, after which all the silent prayers are said to conclude gongyo.
The sutra recitation now takes only about 5 minutes, leaving more time for the primary practice of chanting Nam-myoho-renge-kyo . The silent prayers currently are: It is emphasized by the Soka Gakkai, however, that more important than the wording of the prayers is the practitioner’s heartfelt intent in doing gongyo and expressing his or her appreciation and desires .
Nichiren Shu has many types of gongyo a person can perform.
It is the act of offering the sutra, daimoku the invocation Nam-myoho-renge-kyoand silent prayers to the Gohonzon gonyyo, the object of veneration. Offering the sutra entails reciting the Expedient Means second and the Life Span of the Tathagata sixteenth chapters of the Lotus Sutra ; the silent prayers are five formal meditations expressing gratitude for the Three Treasures as defined in Nichiren Shoshuand the merit accrued through Buddhist practices.
Buddhist piety is a common sentiment found in Gongyo among Nichiren Shoshu members. Members of Nichiren Shoshu may only use Juzu prayer beads with pure white cords and white Pom-Pom ornaments, while Nichiren Shoshu priests use an additional set of Juzu prayer beads with white string tassels which they use towards Kito and Lotus Sutra blessings.
The rubbing of Gongy prayer beads is prohibited during both Gongyo and Shodai or prolonged chanting in Nichiren Shoshu. The number of recitations depends sgk which silent prayer is to be offered. The established format consist of five in the morning and three in the evening, with the Expedient Means and Life Span of the Tathagata chapters recited once for each silent prayer offered. The full Life Span of the Tathagata Chapter is recited only for the second prayer an expression of gonggo to the Dai-Gohonzon ; for all others, only the “verse” portion is recited.
Each recitation of the sutra passages is followed three “prolonged daimoku ” hiki-daimokuwherein each syllable pronounced distinctly and drawn out: Note that the number of or the length yongyo time daimoku is chanted between the final sutra recitation hongyo silent prayer, is discretionary.
Variations on this basic gongyo format, consisting of different combinations of the Expedient Means Chapter and parts of the Life Span of the Tathagata Chapter, are also offered on certain occasions, such as at mid-day meetings, before chanting daimoku for extended periods, and at funerals and celebrations. The most important gongyo service in Nichiren Shoshu is the Ushitora Gongyo performed daily by the high priest or his proxy when he is unable to officiate.
Ushitora Gongyo takes place in the Grand Reception Hall of Head Temple Taisekiji and follows the format of the gonguo morning gongyo service.
It is done between the eponymous hours of the ox ushi The significance of performing Ushitora Gongyo at this time of day derives from earlier Buddhist teachings that describe the hour of the ox as “the end of darkness” and the hour of the tiger as “the beginning of light,” and ones that describe all Buddhas as having attained enlightenment at this time. The passage from the hour of the ox to the hour of the tiger therefore symbolizes the transition from the unenlightened condition of a common mortal to the enlightened condition of a Buddha, so the performance of gongyo at this hour serves as a reminder of the true purpose of Buddhist practice: Though in principle Nichiren Shoshu clergy and sgu practitioners alike perform gongyo following the three-prayer—five-prayer format passed down through the ages at Head Temple Taisekiji, sometimes people under schedule pressure perform shorter variations while increasing the amount of daimoku they offer.
This is because chanting as much daimoku as possible is the main practice of the Nichiren Shoshu faithful, whereas the sutra recitations are an auxiliary practice. Furthermore, when extreme circumstances prevent someone from performing gongyo according to established convention, it is considered by Nichiren Gongjo members to do a shortened version and chant lots of daimoku than to lose daily contact with the Gohonzon.
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August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Four Stages Arhat Buddha Bodhisattva. The Buddhist LiturgyTaiwan: Archived from the original on February 5, Check date values in: The Heart of the Lotus Sutra.
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