Guiera senegalensis is a semi-evergreen to evergreen shrub, usually growing 1 – 3 metres tall, with occasional specimens up to 5 metres. The whole plant is. Guiera senegalensis is an evergreen Shrub growing to m (8ft) by m (8ft) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone (UK) Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium. Guiera senegalensis J. F. Gmel. [family COMBRETACEAE]. Herbarium. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K). Collection. Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa.
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Abstract The galls of Guiera senegalensis J. Gmel Combretaceae are used in Burkina Faso traditional medicine to treat some microbial and metabolic diseases such as malaria, dysentery, diabetes and hypertension.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical analysis, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory inhibitory activities from the galls of Guiera Senegalensis. Phytochemical assay was conducted with following standard protocols. The xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase inhibition properties of extracts and fractions were also evaluated to assess the anti-inflammatory activity from galls of Guiera senegalensis.
Galls extracts of G senegalensis are rich in totals polyphenol and in totals flavonoid content. The hydroacetonic extract showed the most potent antioxidant activity in FRAP method The water fraction of hydroacetonic extract showed the most potent antioxidant activity 6. The present study thus provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use of this plant product to the treatment of metabolic diseases.
Guiera senegalensis GS is a traditional plant distributed widely in western Africa. Seengalensis Burkina Faso traditional medicine, this plant is used to treat some diseases like cough, dysentery, malaria, diabetes and hypertension.
The galls of G. In addition, recent studies demonstrate that an aqueous acetone extract from galls of Guiera senegalensis inhibits in vitro FowlPox Virus growth in secondary CES cells Lamien et al. senegaleensis
Further pharmacological activities antimicrobial properties for example of leaves of Guiera senegalensis have also been gukera Kudi et al. The antiplasmodial activity of infusion, decoction and chloroformic extract of stems and leaves of Guiera senegalensis has been demonstrated on two strains of Plasmodium falciparum Benoit et al.
The chloroformic extract of roots and the isolated alkaloids harman and tetrahydroharman exhibited a significant antimalarial activity associated with a low cytotoxicity Ancolio et al. The central sedative properties of Guiera senegalensis have already been demonstrated Amos et al.
Various chemical constituents are found in the extracts from galls of Guiera senegalensis such as tannins, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, alkaloids and steroids Lamien et al.
Recently, a great interest has been given to naturally occurring antioxidants, which may play important roles in inhibiting both free radical s and oxidative chain-reactions within tissues and membranes Nsimba et al.
Edible plants contain a wide variety of chemicals such as flavonoids and other phenolic compounds that have potential antioxidant activity through a number of different mechanisms.
Botanical characterization of Guiera senegalensis leaves.
The proposed mechanisms for their action include 1 direct radical scavenging, 2 inhibition of enzymes, such ugiera NO-synthase, xanthine oxidasecyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, 3 iron chelation and 4 direct inhibition of lipid peroxidation Xanthopoulou et al.
Several methods are available to evaluate antioxidant activities of natural compounds in foods or biological systems.
DPPH takes normally several hours for the reaction to be completed and colour interference of the DPPH assay with samples that contain anthocyanins leads to under-estimation of antioxidant activity Teow et al.
DPPH method is independent of the substrate polarity. The BCB method is usually used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of compounds in emulsions, accompanied with the coupled oxidation of b-carotene and linoleic acid. Ascorbic acid, is a well known antioxidant polar compound, its antioxidant activity was not proved by this method. FRAP is used in assay to assess the metal iron exclusively ions binding ability Nsimba et al. The reducing power is generally associated with the presence of reductones, which exerts antioxidant action by breaking the free radical chain by donating a hydrogen atom Prasad et al.
Xanthine Oxidase XO catalyzes oxypurines hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid in the purine catabolic pathway. Inhibition of XO activities decreases the uric acid levels and results in an anti-hyperuricemic effect Zhu et al.
The XO plays an important role in various ischemic tissues, vascular injuries, inflammatory diseases, chronic heart failure, is a major source of free radical s superoxideits activity contributes significantly to the degree of oxidative stressbrain edema, thermal stress, respiratory syndrome, viral infection and hemorrhagic shock in vivo and it is also associated with gout Naoghare et al.
The products of 5-lipoxygenase including leukotrienes LTs constitute an important class of inflammatory mediators of asthma and various inflammatory diseases, contribute to vascular changes in inflammation Li et al. The ethnomedicinal uses activities from the galls of GS suggest that the galls might possess antioxidant activities. The aim of the present study was to screen the phyto chemical analysis and the antioxidant activities from galls of GS. The galls of Guiera senegalensis were collected in kadiogo province of Burkina Faso in August and authenticated by professor Millogo-Rasolodimby, botanist at Ouagadougou University.
Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, aluminium trichloride AlCl 32,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl DPPHxanthine, gallic acid, quercetin, allopurinol, trichloroacetic acid, tween 40, 2-thiobarbit uric acidXanthine oxidase E. Solvents used were supplied by Fluka Chemie, Buchs Switzerland. All other reagents were of analytical and HPLC grades. A group of 5 adult wistar rats g of either sex were used.
Rats were subjected to urethane anesthesia 1. Liver was removed, washed with cold saline, quickly blotted and weighed.
Throughout the experiments, animals were processed according to the suggested international ethical guidelines for the care of laboratory animals. The galls were dried and ground to powder.
The obtained powder was extracted with selected solvents: The filtrate obtained using whatman filter paper was concentrated under reduced pressure in a rotary evaporator and lyophilized using a freeze drying system to give the hydroacetonic extract HAE and aqueous decoction extract ADE. The hydroacetonic and the aqueous decoction extracts were respectively dissolved in distilled water and successively extracted with ethyl acetate, butanol. Each extract was dried to give: Determination of totals phenol, totals flavonoid content in the extracts: The total phenol content of extracts and fractions was determined as described by Singleton et al.
The diluted aqueous solution of each extract or fraction 0. This mixed solution was allowed to stand at room temperature for 5 min and then 1 mL of sodium carbonate solution 75 g L -1 was added. After 2 h incubation, the absorbance was measured at nm against blank. A standard curve was plotted using gallic acid mg L Totals flavonoid content was determined using the Dowd method as adapted by Arvouet-Grand et al.
The absorbance was read at nm after 10 min against a blank sample consisting of a 1 mL of methanol and 1 mL of plant extract without AlCl 3. The totals flavonoid content was determined on a standard curve using quercetin as a standard.
Guiera senegalensis – Useful Tropical Plants
The ability of the extracts or fractions to reduce iron from the form III to the form II was assessed with the method of Hinneburg et al. Iron III reducing activity was determined as mmol ascorbic acid equivalents per gram of extract or fraction mmol AEAC g -1 extract or fraction. The values are presented as the means of triplicate analyse. Free radical-scavenging activity in vitro: The ability of the extracts or fractions to scavenge the DPPH 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical was evaluated as described by Lamien-Meda et al.
Extracts or fractions were dissolved in methanol and 0. The mixtures were left for 15 min at room temperature and the absorbance was measured at nm. The blank sample consisted of 0.
The antioxidant content was determined using standard curves for ascorbic acid mg L The means of three values were obtained, expressed as mmol of ascorbic acid equivalent per g of extract or fraction antioxidant content mmol AEAC g -1 extract or fraction. The antioxidant activity of extracts and fractions was evaluated by the method of Shon et al.
As soon as the emulsion was added to each tube, the zero time absorbance was measured at nm using a spectrophotometer. Absorbance readings were then recorded at 20 min intervals until the control sample had changed colour.
Antioxidant activity was calculated using the following equation:. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate: The inhibition activity of extracts or fractions on lipid peroxidation LPO was determined according to the thiobarbit uric acid method. In this method, 0. The absorbance was recorded at nm. Quercetin and gallic acid were used as the positives controls.
The percentage of inhibition effect was calculated according to following equation:. Anti-inflammatory activity Xanthine oxidase inhibitory: The XO activities with xanthine as the substrate were measured spectrophotometrically using the procedure reported by Filha et al.
A negative control was prepared without extract. Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was measured by slightly modifying the spectrometric method as developed by Malterud and Rydland All the reactions were performed in triplicate. Quercetin and gallic acid were used as positive control for lipoxygenase inhibition. Chemical and enzymatic analyses of individual samples were performed in triplicates.
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The results presented are the mean and standard deviations of the obtained values. Data manipulation was performed by means of Microsoft Excel. All extracts were analyzed for polyphenols compounds content. The yield of aqueous decoction and hydroacetonic extracts was determined.
The yield extraction is We obtained almost the same yield for the two types of extractions. Determination of total phenol and flavonoid content in the extracts: Table 1 shows the totals phenol, totals flavonoid content in the extracts and fractions from galls of G. The hydroacetonic extract HAE exhibited the highest total phenolic content This extract is significantly higher ssenegalensis when compared to the others extract and fractions. The result of hydroacetonic extract is higher than that obtained by Lamien et al.
The amounts of total phenol contents were increased by polarity of the extraction solvent. Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites that are present in many plant and plant product. Many of the phenolics have been shown to contain high levels of antioxidant activities. Water fraction from ADE. Totals flavonoid content did not seegalensis according to the polarity of the extraction solvents.