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Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only. La virtud del egoismo/ The Virtue of Selfishness: Un nuevo y desafiante concepto del egoismo/ A New and Challenging Concept Ayn Rand. Ayn Rand chose this book’s provocative title because she was on a mission to overcome the concept’s demonization. Synopsis and background info here.

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Ayn Rand February 2 [O. Her philosophy and her fiction both emphasize, above all, the concepts of individualism, rational egoism “rational self-interest”and Capitalismwhich she believed should be implemented fully via Laissez-faire capitalism.

Her politics has been described as minarchism and libertarianism, though she never used the first term and detested the second. Her novels were based upon the projection of the Randian hero, rabd man whose ability and independence causes conflict with the masses, but who perseveres nevertheless to achieve his ka. Rand viewed this hero as the ideal, and the express goal of her fiction was to showcase such heroes. Rand was born in Saint Petersburg, Russia, and was the eldest of three daughters of a Jewish family.

Her parents were agnostic and largely non-observant. From an early age, she displayed a strong interest in literature and films. She started writing screenplays and novels from the age of seven. Her mother virtu her French and subscribed to a magazine featuring stories for boys, where Rand found her first childhood hero: Throughout her youth, she read the novels of Sir Vlrtud Scott, Alexandre Dumas and other Romantic writers, and expressed a passionate enthusiasm toward the Romantic movement as a whole.

She discovered Victor Hugo at the age of thirteen, and fell deeply in love with his novels. Later, she cited him as her favorite novelist and the greatest novelist of world literature. She studied philosophy and history at the University of Petrograd. Her major literary discoveries in university were the works of Edmond Rostand, Friedrich Schiller and Fyodor Dostoevsky. She admired Rostand for his richly romantic imagination and Schiller for his grand, heroic scale.

She admired Dostoevsky for his sense of drama and his intense moral judgments, but was deeply against his philosophy and his sense of life. She continued to write short stories and screenplays and wrote sporadically in her diary, which contained intensely anti-Soviet ideas. She also encountered the philosophical ideas of Nietzsche, and loved his exaltation of the heroic and independent individual who embraced egoism and rejected altruism in Thus Spoke Zarathustra.

Though an ranf fan of Nietzsche, she eventually became critical, seeing his philosophy as emphasizing emotion over reason. Although Leonard Peikoff, promoter of her ideas, says she is the greatest philosopher who ever lived, she herself considered Aristotle the greatest philosopher ever, and stated that he was the only philosopher who had influenced her this is probably because, as she has stated, she did not include her own work when analyzing the culture.

She then cirtud the State Institute vrtud Cinema Arts in to study screenwriting; in latehowever, she was granted a visa to visit American relatives. She arrived in the United States in Februaryat the age of twenty-one.

After a brief stay with her relatives in Chicago, she resolved never to return to the Soviet Union, and set out for Hollywood to become a screenwriter.

She then changed her name to “Ayn Rand”. There is a story told that she named herself after the Remington Rand typewriter, but she began using the name Ayn Rand before the typewriter was first sold. She stated that her rahd name, ‘Ayn’, laa an adaptation of the name of a Finnish writer.

This may have been the Finnish-Estonian author Aino Kallas, but egoisjo of this name are common in Finnish-speaking regions.

Major works Initially, Rand struggled in Hollywood and took odd jobs to pay her basic living expenses. While working as an extra on Cecil B. The two married in InRand became a naturalized citizen of the United States. Her first literary success came with the sale of egosimo screenplay Anthem While We the Living met with mixed reviews in the U.


Besides, Rand had still not perfected her literary style egoismi these novels cannot be considered representative. They were nearly censored by the Italian government under Benito Mussolini, but they were permitted because the novel upon which they were based was anti-Soviet. The films were successful and the public easily realized that they were as much against Fascism as Communism, and the government banned them quickly thereafter.

These films were re-edited into a new version which was approved by Rand and re-released as We the Living in Rand’s first major professional success came with her best-selling novel The Fountainheadwhich she wrote over a period of seven years. The novel was rejected by twelve publishers, who thought it was too intellectual and opposed to the mainstream of American thought.

It was finally accepted by the Bobbs-Merrill Company publishing house, thanks mainly to a member of the editorial board, Archibald Egismo, who praised the book in the highest terms and finally prevailed. Eventually, The Fountainhead was a worldwide success, bringing Rand fame and financial security.

The theme of The Fountainhead is “individualism and collectivism in man’s soul”. It features the lives of five main characters. The hero, Howard Roark, is Rand’s ideal, a noble soul par excellence, an architect who is firmly and serenely devoted to his own ideals and believes that no man should copy the style of another in any field, especially architecture.

All the other characters in the novel demand that he renounce his values, but Roark maintains his integrity. Unlike traditional heroes who launch into long and passionate monologues about their integrity and the unfairness of the world; Roark, in vritud, does it with a disdainful, almost contemptuous taciturnity and laconicism. Rand’s magnum opus, Atlas Shrugged, was published inbecoming an international bestseller. Atlas Shrugged is often seen as Rand’s most complete statement of The Objectivist philosophy in any of her works of fiction.

In its appendix, she offered this summary: Rand upheld the industrialist as one of the most admirable members of any society and fiercely opposed the popular resentment accorded to industrialists. This led her to envision a novel wherein the industrialists of America go on strike and retreat to a mountainous hideaway.

The American economy and its society in general slowly start to collapse. The government responds by increasing the already stifling controls on industrial concerns. The novel, despite its central political theme, deals with issues as complex and divergent as sex, music, medicine, and an ability.

Along with Nathaniel Branden, his wife Barbara, and others including Alan Greenspan and Viryud Peikoff, jokingly designated “The Collective”Rand launched the Objectivist movement to promote her philosophy.

The Objectivist movement In Rand moved to New York City, where in she met the young psychology student Nathaniel Branden, who had read her book, The Fountainhead, at the age of Branden, then 19, enjoyed discussing Rand’s emerging Objectivist philosophy with her. Together, Branden and some of his other friends formed a group that they dubbed the Collective, which included some participation by future Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan.

After several years, Rand and Branden’s friendly relationship blossomed into a romantic affair, despite the fact that both were married at the time. Their spouses were both convinced to accept this affair but it eventually led to the separation and then divorce of Nathaniel Branden from his wife. Although one of Rand’s most strident philosophical points was drl to bow to societal pressure or norms, Ayn Rand abandoned her own name see top of pageas did Branden born Nathan Blumenthal.

Throughout the s and s, Rand developed and promoted her Objectivist philosophy through both her fiction and non-fiction works, and by giving talks at several east-coast universities, largely through the Nathaniel Branden Institute “the NBI” which Branden established to promote her philosophy.

Rand refused to have any further dealings with the NBI.

She then published a letter in “The Objectivist” announcing her repudiation of Branden for various reasons, including dishonesty, but did not mention their affair or her role in the schism. The two never reconciled, and Branden etoismo a persona non grata in the Objectivist movement. Barbara Branden presented an account of the breakup of the affair in her book, The Passion of Ayn Rand. She describes the encounter between Nathaniel and Rand, saying that Rand slapped him numerous times, and denounced him in these words: And if you achieve any potency, you’ll know it’s a sign of still worse moral degradation!


Virgud of her closest “Collective” friends began to part ways, and during the late 70’s, her activities within the formal Objectivist movement began to decline, a situation which increased after the death of her husband in One of her final projects was work on a television adaptation of Atlas Shrugged. Rand died of heart failure on March 6, in New York City, years after having successfully battled cancer, and was interred in the Kensico Cemetery, Valhalla, New York.

Philosophical influences Rand rejected virtually all other philosophical schools.

Ayn Rand in Argentina

She acknowledged a shared intellectual lineage with Aristotle and John Locke, and more generally with the philosophies of the Age of Enlightenment and the Age of Reason.

She occasionally remarked with approval on specific philosophical positions of, e. She seems also to have respected the American rationalist Brand Blanshard. However, she regarded most philosophers as at best incompetent and at worst downright evil.

She singled out Immanuel Kant as the most influential of the latter sort. Nonetheless, there are connections between Rand’s views and those of other philosophers. She acknowledged that she had been influenced at an early age by the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche.

Though she later repudiated his thought and reprinted her first novel, Self-Reliance do exist.


Later Objectivists, such as Richard Salsman, have claimed that Rand’s economic theories are implicitly more supportive of the doctrines of Jean-Baptiste Say, though Rand herself was likely not acquainted with his work. Politics and House Committee on Un-American Activities testimony Rand’s political views were radically pro-capitalist, anti-statist, and anti-Communist.

Her writings praised above all the human individual and the creative genius of which one is capable. She exalted what she saw as the heroic American values of egoism and individualism. Rand also had a strong dislike for mysticism, religion, and compulsory charity, all of which she believed helped foster a crippling virud of resentment towards individual human happiness and success.

Rand detested rel prominent liberal and conservative politicians of her time, even including prominent anti-Communist egoism like Presidents Harry S. Humphrey and Joseph McCarthy although she argued that McCarthyism was a myth, and that the accusation of McCarthyism was used as an ad hominem argument to discredit anti-Communists.

Rand’s testimony involved analysis of the film Song of Russia. Egismo argued that the movie grossly misrepresented the socioeconomic conditions in the Soviet Union.

She told the committee that the film presented life in the USSR as being much better than it actually was. Apparently this film was intentional wartime propaganda by U. After the HUAC hearings, when Ayn Rand was asked about her feelings on the effectiveness of their investigations, she described the process as “futile”.

Legacy Rand’s funeral was attended by some of her prominent followers, including Alan Greenspan. A six-foot floral arrangement in the shape of a dollar sign was placed near her casket. The Center for the Advancement of Objectivism”. The Institute has since registered the name Ayn Rand as a trademark, despite Rand’s desire that her name never be used to promote the philosophy she developed.

Rand expressed her wish to keep her name and the philosophy of Objectivism separate to ensure the survival of her ideas. Another schism in the movement occurred inwhen Objectivist David Kelley wrote “A Question of Sanction,” in which he defended his choice to speak to non-Objectivist libertarian groups.


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